Pattani sits on the gulf of Thailand, covering slightly less than 2,000 square kilometres. The Tani and Sai Buri rivers flow across the province. Pattani is an important port, with nearly 200 kilometers of coastline. There are a number of ancient ruins of historical and cultural significance, and much of the province has been influenced by a fusion of Thai, Islamic and Chinese traditions.
Pattani is divided into 12 districts: Muang Pattani, Yarang, Nong Chik, Khok Pho, Yaring, Panare, Mayo, Sai Buri, Kapho, Mai Kaen, Thung Yang Daeng, and Mae Lan.